There are three types of cotton available. Based on the strength, length, and structure of its fiber.

  •  Long-Staple Cotton

As per the name, it is the longest fiber, length varies from 24 to 27 mm. This fiber is long, shining, and fine. This fiber helps to make superior and fine quality cloth. Long-staple cotton is the most used cotton in India that comes at a low Kapas price. Long-staple cotton is widely produced in India, about half of the total cotton production. The major producing states of long-staple cotton are Punjab, Maharashtra, MP, Tamilnadu, Haryana, AP, and Gujarat.

  • Medium Staple Cotton

In Medium staple cotton, the fiber length is between 20 mm to 24 mm. Almost 44% of total Kapas production is a medium staple. Major states are Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra. A medium staple is the second most used fiber in India, it provides good quality clothes. It’s available at an economical price.

  • Short Staple Cotton

A short staple is the shortest fiber and inferior cotton. The length of short-staple cotton is less than 20 mm. It manufactured inferior cloth at a low price. Short staple cotton produces about 6% of total production. The main producers of short-staple cotton are AP, UP, Haryana, Punjab, and Haryana.

India is the top agricultural country that produces the largest cotton crop producing country in the world. Here, we are showing the largest Kapas production countries in the World with ranking and production (1000 480 lb. Bales). With 28500 (1000 480 lb. Bales) India is the largest cotton producing country in India. India covers 125.84 lakh hectare area for cotton production.

Following are the leading cotton producers in the world.

  • • India – 28,500
  • • China – 26,500
  • • United States – 19,500
  • • Brazil – 12,000
  • • Pakistan – 6,300
  • • Turkey – 3,300
  • • Uzbekistan – 3,250
  • • Australia – 1,700
  • • Greece – 1,640
  • • Benin – 1450

Here we are showing cotton production in India state wise. The data comes from the cotton advisory board report in 2020. Gujarat is the largest cotton crop-producing state in India.

  •  Gujarat

The leading cotton producer in India is Gujarat. It produces 95 Lakh bales of cotton in India and covers 26.59 lakh hectares. Due to annual rainfall and black soil, This state is a profitable region for cotton production in India 2019-20. The popular cotton production regions are Vadodara, Mehsana, Bharuch, Surendranagar, and Ahmedabad. Gujarat is a central state for the textile industry due to the huge production of cotton.

  • • Maharashtra

Maharashtra is the largest producer of cotton in India and produced 82 lakh bales of cotton in India. The cotton production covers 42.54 lakh hectares in Maharashtra. The largest cotton-producing regions of Maharashtra are Yavatamal, Vidarbha, Khandesh, Marathwada, Akola, Wardha, and Amravati.

  • • Telangana

Telangana produces about 53 lakh bales of cotton and covers 18.27 lakh hectares in India. Guntur, Anantapur, Prakasam, and Kurnool are the major cotton-producing regions in the state.

  • • Rajasthan

Rajasthan produces 25 lakh bales of cotton in India and covers 6.29 lakh hectares area of India. The regions are Bhilwara, Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Jhalawar, Pali and Hanumangarh.

  • • Haryana

Haryana produces 22 lakh bales of cotton and stands in the 5th position. The cotton plantation covers 7.08 lakh hectares area in Haryana. The major regions are Fatehabad, Sirsa, Hisar, Bhiwani, Jhajjar, Charkhi Dadri, Faridabad, Mewat, Palwal, Panipat, Karnal, Gurugram, Rohtak, Jind, and Kaithal.

  • Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh produces 20 lakh bales every year. 5.79 lakh hectares covered by cotton production in MP. Cotton production regions are Bhopal, Dewas, Ratlam, Nimar, and Shajapur.

  • Karnataka

With 18 lakh bales of cotton in India, Karnataka stands at 7th position of the largest cotton-producing state in India. Cotton covers 6.88 lakh hectares area of Karnataka state. Kapas grew in the North Karnataka Plateau due to ideal conditions for cotton production. Major reasons are Dharwad, Gulbarga, Dharwad, Bellary, and Belgaum.

  • Punjab

Punjab produces 13 lakh bales per year in India and covers 2.68 lakh hectares area. The major regions are Ludhiyana, Moga, Bhatinda, Faridkot, Sangrur, and Mansa.

• TamilNadu

Tamilnadu state contributes 6 lakh bales of cotton and covers 1.31 lakh hectares of land in the state. Vellalore, Ramanathapuram, Coimbatore, Salem and Madurai, Tiruchirapalli are cotton-producing districts in TamilNadu.

• Odisha

Orissa produces 4 lakh cotton per year for India and 1.58 lakh hectares area. Subarnapur is the main cotton production state of Orissa.

States Production (2019-20)Area (Hectares)Yield (Kg/Hectares)
Gujarat 95 Lakh26.59 lakh556.22
Maharashtra82 Lakh42.54 lakh 307.71
Telangana53 Lakh18.27 lakh 437.33
Rajasthan 25 Lakh6.29 lakh675.68
Haryana22 Lakh7.08 lakh552.26
Madhya Pradesh20 Lakh5.79 lakh664.50
Karnataka18 Lakh6.88 lakh 370.64
Punjab13 Lakh2.68 lakh 729.48
Tamilnadu6 Lakh1.31 lakh 778.63
Odisha4 Lakh 1.58 lakh 


Here, we are showing cotton processing steps.

• Planting

The first step of cotton production is to prepare the land for planting by creating furrows in the soil. The cotton planting season is early February and late June. With the help of direct water irrigation and furrows, the soil warms faster. When the soil temperature reaches 65 degrees, the soil is ready for planting. Farmers will plant the seed in the soil. This process is an important and difficult step for cotton farming. But with the proper precaution and advanced farm machine, it becomes easier. For planting and soil preparation farmers should use heavy farm machines like a harrow, cultivator, land leveler, etc., with tractors. Soil preparation improves the quality of soil for good production.

• Growing

In the next step, we see the growth of plants. After 1-2 weeks of planting the seed sprouts up from the soil. After 8-10 weeks, the plant blooms and grows 2-5 feet tall. The flower pollinates itself and changes from a creamy white color to pinkish-red within three days. After this process the flower withers and falls off, leaving behind the developing boll. At about 10 weeks the cotton boll develops.

• Boll Opening

In the third step, the cotton bolls open so that the dry white bolls can evaporate, can clean the fiber, and fluff it up. With this process, the cotton crops are ready to be harvested. The cotton bolls open after the 50-70 days of bloom.

• Picking

This step needs the farm machine which removes the fiber from the plant. The cotton picker or cotton harvesting farm machine used to harvest the cotton, the process called picking. The machine can harvest up to 6-8 rows at a time. The cotton harvesting season is early July or late October.

• Modules

In the step, the picker’s cotton dumped on the ground and compressed with a hydraulic module builder to make a module. The modules are left in the field for storage.

• Ginning

In this process, the modules transported to the cotton gain, where the cotton dried, cleaned, and the fiber mechanically separated from the cotton. The gin is a machine made with circular saws which separate the raw fiber through ribs. The ribs are used to avoid the seed from passing. The machine carefully separates the fiber from cottonseed.

• Cottonseed

After the separation of cottonseed, it is suitable for making cotton oil, cotton meal, hulls, and other important things.

• Cotton Fiber

In this process, the raw fiber, called lint, is pressed into bales. Cotton fiber makes clothes, textiles, and many more. The bales are packed with eight steel straps, tested by experts, wrapped with full protection, and exported to the yards, mills, and other countries.

Benefits of Cotton Production

  1. Cotton is much beneficial for cloths, bedsheets, curtains, and jackets.
  2. The seed oil of cotton is good for food and cosmetics.
  3. It is profitable for coffee filters, oil, plastics, and rubber.

Cotton is a plant fiber that grows in shrub plants. The fibers of this soft and fluffy plant are used to manufacture a variety of fabrics and textiles, ranging from lightweight laces to thick-piled velveteen. Cotton fabrics are frequently used for clothing, furnishings and for industrial uses. It is commonly used to make clothes as it is very breathable; it absorbs and releases moistures quickly.

• The majority of the cotton comes from India, the United States and China – the world’s top three cotton producers.

• Each year, India produces an average of 5800 thousand metric tonnes of cotton making in the world's     highest producer.

• The United States is a key producer and exporter of cotton. It produces 3,999 thousand metric tonnes a year.

Top Cotton Producing Countries

1. India

Each year, India produces an average of 5,800 thousand metric tonnes of cotton making it the world’s highest producer. Cotton has been used in India for thousands of years and early origins of its use have been traced back to the Indus Valley civilization that lived in the northwestern regions of South Asia. Thanks to its favorable climate, the majority of India’s cotton is produced in the zone that covers Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.

2.The United States

The United States is a key producer and exporter of cotton. It produces 3,999 thousand metric tonnes a year. The crop is mostly grown within the “Cotton Belt”, an area that comprises 17 southern states including Virginia, Arizona, Mississippi and Texas. Texas is the United States’ largest cotton producer; it accounts for approximately 45 percent of all the country’s cotton production. In the United States, three mechanical systems are used to harvest cotton. The harvesting of the crop begins in July in the south of Texas and extends to late November in the states with more northern climates.

3. China

Producing 3,500 thousand metric tonnes a year, China is one of the world’s largest cotton producers. China’s cotton industry employs 10 million people and in the 24 provinces that produce the plant, 300 million are involved in its production. China grows Bt cotton, a genetically modified crop that is used for commercial production. The crop was introduced in 2002 and has proved to have better pest resistance than non-GM cotton.

4. Brazil

The South American country of Brazil produces 2,787 thousand metric tonnes of cotton per year. The country has an abundance of arable land and periods of regular rainfall, which provide an environment that is ideal for cotton cultivation. Cotton is predominantly grown in the central states of Brazil, but despite its wealth of land and water, a lack of good transport links means the central states provide obstacles when exporting cotton.

5. Pakistan

Pakistan produces 1,655 thousand metric tonnes of cotton each year. The cultivation of cotton occurs along the Indus River; it is estimated that 97% of the river’s water goes towards producing crops, including cotton. Genetically modified cotton currently accounts for more than 95 percent of the area under cotton cultivation. In Pakistan, there are approximately 1.7 million people involved in the growing of cotton.